The first poem is a poetic form called an etheree. The first line is one syllable, and each of the following lines is one more, ending with the ten syllable tenth line.
He lost so much
Sacrificed for us
Gave of his own free will
And changed his life forever
Not losing limbs, but peace of mind
Spending restless nights haunted by dreams
Waking to the nightmare of homelessness
The second poem is an octain refrain. I’ll explain the form then share my example.
Structure – eight lines as two tercets and a couplet, eight syllables per line with the first line repeated (as much as possible) as the last. Line five has an internal rhyme requirement (c/c) Meter is either iambic or trochaic tetrameter.
When troops come marching home again,
war torn, exhausted from the flight,
still trying to forget the fight,
Our arms reach out to take them in,
and after cheers and many tears
we’ll all give thanks and say amen,
Then beg relief from battles’ blight
When troops come marching home again.